Damn Vulnerable Web Sockets Walkthrough

DVWS is similar to Damn Vulnerable Web Application, but communication between client and server is based on WebSockets. Source code is available here , but it’s much easier to use prepared Docker image.

WebSocketProxy:

Brute force and SQL injection required some automatization to get results quickly. For Error SQL Injection I wrote my own WebSocket client in JavaScript, but for Brute force and Blind SQL Injection I took a different approach. I wanted to use Hydra and sqlmap, but I wasn’t able to connect to WebSocket. To solve this problem, I wrote proxy which allows communication between HTTP and WebSocket protocols. It’s an application written in Java with Jetty (HTTP server) and Tyrus (WebSocket client) libraries. Tools can make HTTP requests which are transferred to vulnerable WebSocket application. Project is available on GitHub.

Brute Force

To log in, we send JSON with login and password encoded by base64. In case of failure we receive

<pre>Incorrect username/password</pre>

I downloaded wordlist with most common logins and passwords, then I converted these words into their base64 form.

while read line; do echo $line | base64; done < passwords.txt > b64passwords.txt

I ran WebSocket proxy and Hydra to perform brute force attack. It was important to set -t 1 because this proxy doesn’t support parallel connections. In result I got login and password “YWRtaW4=” what decodes to “admin”

CSRF

There is no CSRF protection, so I prepared website with script which will connect to WebSocket and send password change request. Request consists of JSON with two password fields. The second field ‘cpass’ is not even checked, so we can skip it. Victim must be logged in, otherwise they will get error

Message Authenticated session is required for changing password.

File Inclusion

In request, a filename to display is sent. I used Owasp ZAP to intercept request and put filename I wanted to display.

Error SQL Injection

Both login and password are vulnerable. This vulnerability reveals error message in case of invalid query. I wrote my own client in JavaScript which uses group by with having technique to get names of tables and columns and dump table users. This technique causes error in which some part of query is executed and returned to interface.

admin admin
bob bobbuilder
jsmith password

comments Name
comments Comment
users username
users first_name
users last_name
users password
cond_instances NAME
cond_instances OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN
events_waits_current THREAD_ID
events_waits_current EVENT_ID
events_waits_current EVENT_NAME
events_waits_current SOURCE
events_waits_current TIMER_START
events_waits_current TIMER_END
events_waits_current TIMER_WAIT
events_waits_current SPINS
events_waits_current OBJECT_SCHEMA
events_waits_current OBJECT_NAME
events_waits_current OBJECT_TYPE

Blind SQL Injection

It’s similar to Error SQL Injection but this time there is no result from query. I decided to use sqlmap combined with WebSocketProxy to dump users table.

Command Execution

Reflected XSS

Stored XSS

These vulnerabilities are nothing special in comparison with DVWA. Standard payloads work for them.

127.0.0.1; cat /etc/passwd

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Written on February 14, 2017